MOODY'S ASSIGNS RATINGS TO FIVE MAJOR HUNGARIAN BANKS
Limassol, April 1, 1996 -- Moody's Investors Service assigned ratings for foreign currency deposits and for bank financial strength to five large banks in Hungary. Ratings assigned were the following:
Kereskedelmi & Hitel Bank Rt. (KHB. -- ratings of Ba2 for long-term deposits, Not Prime for short-term deposits, and D for bank financial strength.
Magyar Hitel Bank Rt. (MHB) -- ratings of Ba3 for long-term deposits, Not Prime for short-term deposits, and E+ for bank financial strength.
Magyar Kulkereskedelmi Bank Rt. (MKB) -- ratings of Ba2 for long-term deposits, Not Prime for short-term deposits, and D+ for bank financial strength.
Orszagos Takarekpenztar es Kereskedelmi Bank Rt. (OTP Bank) -- ratings of Ba2 for long-term deposits, Not Prime for short-term deposits, and D+ for bank financial strength.
Postabank es Takarekpenztar Rt (Postabank) -- ratings of Ba2 for long-term deposits, Not Prime for short-term deposits, and D for bank financial strength.
Moody's said that the deposit ratings of four of the banks it rated -- KHB, MKB, OTP, and Postabank -- are constrained by the sovereign ceiling for foreign currency bank deposits that Moody's has established for Hungary, at Ba2 for long-term deposits and Not Prime for short-term deposits. The deposit ratings are opinions of an institution's overall credit risk, and as such, incorporate
external credit factors (such as foreign-currency transfer risk) as well as credit supports that exist in addition to bank-specific elements. The bank financial strength ratings, on the other hand, are Moody's opinion of an institution's intrinsic safety and soundness on a stand alone basis, and these exclude external credit factors. Moody's pointed out that the five banks hold about 60% of total Hungarian bank assets.
The credit, debtor and bank consolidation measures carried out by the government from 1992 to 1994 helped to solidify the situation of the large banks. The schemes helped to relieve certain banks of their troubled lending and provided them with additional capital, enabling them to meet minimum capital-adequacy requirements. In addition to providing capital, the debtor and bank consolidation program, administered under bank specific agreements, caused some banks to streamline their organization and to restructure themselves more efficiently. Not all of the large banks received assistance under each measure of the program -- only those that required it. The most needy banks were those spun out of the National Bank of Hungary with loans to state-owned institutions from the former system, and with modest capital bases.
Like their counterparts in other Central European countries, the large Hungarian banks have made significant advances in a short time, broadening their skill base, enhancing their service capability, and beginning the installation of modern management information systems. Nevertheless, the banks have not yet attained their full development potential, and the environment in
which the banks operate is still undergoing a transition to a market-based economy. Moody's said that the banks are continuing to restructure themselves and adding services so that the competitive tenor of the market is still developing. The market is somewhat segmented, as a vestige of the former system. OTP dominates the retail sector, and the other large banks tend to be strong in particular sectors of the economy. Broad-based universal-style banking competition has not yet fully developed. The pace of competition
should pick up as local banks begin to compete more actively in the retail market, Moody's believes, and foreign and joint-venture banks continue to play an active role in the corporate market.
Moody's noted that the market share of the large domestic bank sector has eroded over the last five years as a result of major market reforms and rationalizations. Both newly established joint-venture banks and new foreign-owned banks have been the beneficiaries of the erosion, gaining ground in the large corporate sector especially. But the market situation of the large Hungarian banks has been stabilizing, and they retain major shares of their markets despite the new competition. In addition, the activity of the
joint venture banks has had some market benefits: for instance, encouraging competition, helping to establish higher service level standards, and disseminating skills.
A legislative and a regulatory framework based on EU directives has been put in place, for the most part. Hungary is phasing in harmonization with EU directives to accommodate the changes associated with its transforming economic system.
After posting losses in 1993 as a group, the profitability of the large banks improved in 1994 and the first half of 1995, although returns remained moderate particularly given the high inflation rate in Hungary. Up until 1994, the profitability of the large banks had been constrained by high provisions for loan losses. This especially affected the banks in 1992 and 1993 after the imposition of more stringent provision methodologies. Provisions should be less of a major factor going forward, Moody's believes, although there should be additional enterprise shakeouts ahead associated with the economic transition, and there could be an impact if positive macroeconomic trends falter should the government lose its deficit-cutting resolve. The net interest margins of the banks also improved significantly in 1994 and 1995. The receipt of consolidation bonds, paying a market rate of interest starting in 1994,
significantly helped the net interest margin of the banks. Improving asset/liability mixes also helped the margins of the banks. Overhead levels have fallen but remain high. Both revenue and cost issues are associated with the high overhead levels: The banks have not completed the rationalization of their services networks; and they are still bearing development costs without
yet realizing the full potential benefit of fees for new services.
There are still large interbank funding dependencies, and the use of central bank refinancing credits has fallen but remains significant. The situation should improve, Moody's said, as competition broadens and as the market grows less segmented. Consolidation bonds comprise a high percentage of the assets of certain banks -- specifically, those that required the most assistance. The bonds have a 20-year maturity, and on a limited basis, they may be used as collateral for central bank borrowings. In some instances, the National Bank of Hungary has purchased consolidation bonds or has exchanged them for government paper of shorter maturity in order to provide additional liquidity when needed.
The level of qualified loans -- loans classified as substandard, doubtful, or loss -- has fallen but remains high. The level of qualified lending ranges rather widely among the large banks. The large banks that focus on commercial lending and that were spun out of the National Bank of Hungary, in general, have a higher level of problem lending. The problems have arisen both from credit
inherited from the NBH, and from newly extended credit. Major structural changes within the economy, as well as a reorientation of Hungary's export market, have lifted the level of problem lending. The banks have already made major provisions for their current book of problem loans, according to methodologies established by local regulation. Nevertheless, Moody's expects to see declining -- but high -- levels of qualified loans until the local economic transformation is more complete. Macroeconomic circumstances -- large
balance-of-payment and public sector deficits, along with high unemployment and inflation -- also have the potential to lead to occasional reversals in the general declining trend of problem loans from time to time, Moody's added.
The capital adequacy of the banks has improved as a result of the bank consolidation program and of partial privatization of the system. Capital adequacy levels vary broadly among the largest banks. On average, the capital adequacy of the large-bank sector is moderately above minimum levels, but the banks should increase the pace at which they raise needed capital as privatization advances. The state remains a substantial shareholder in the Hungarian banking system. The bank consolidation efforts of 1992-1994, whereby the state injected additional moneys into certain banks, delayed the privatization process; however, a number of the large banks have already been partially privatized -- for example, MKB in 1994; OTP and Budapest Bank in 1995. The system is ready for privatization on a larger scale now that the government's consolidation program has helped to put the banks on better footing. The government is ready to accelerate privatization of the banks, and it plans to sell two of the largest remaining state banks -- MHB and KHB -- by the end of 1996.
Moody's said that bank financial strength ratings of the large banks are based on their substantial shares of their local markets. The ratings also reflect the inevitability of further structural adjustments in the Hungarian economy as it continues to transform to a more market-based system. KHB possesses a large services network that should grow more integrated over the next few years, according to the rating agency. The bank's capitalization has improved, problem loans have fallen, and loan loss reserve levels are higher
as a result of state assistance received in the 1992-1994 consolidation programs. The agricultural and food-processing sector in Hungary -- one of the bank's main lending segments -- appears to be stabilizing. The bank also has instituted a program to streamline the organization and improve efficiency. However, the bank's Tier 1 capitalization is not particularly strong; Moody's noted also that, the bank has only recently undergone a large number of management and organizational changes, and although the number of qualified
loans has fallen quickly, KHB still has a significant level of classified client loans.
Moody's said that the ratings of MHB are based in part on its recent recapitalization, and on its brighter future as a result of its stabilization and restructuring program. The ratings also reflect the bank's burden of problem loans, its moderate profitability, and its falling market share through the first half of 1995.
MKB plays a leading role in foreign trade finance in Hungary, and it maintains a good risk-based capitalization. Nevertheless, the rating also reflects the bank's limited non-trade-related commercial banking business and branch distribution network, as well as the likelihood that two of the bank's main businesses -- trade finance and international payments -- will be particularly subject to intensifying competition.
OTP dominates retail banking in Hungary, and it operates a large distribution network that should grow increasingly efficient -- a network, moreover, that will be difficult for competitors to duplicate in the personal market. However, the rating also reflects the further development that is still necessary, and the risks related to the transitional state of the local market. OTP has not yet attained its target service levels, and its overhead remains high. The bank is continuing the process of rationalizing its staffing and service network. Competition in the banking sector should intensify as local banks begin to compete more actively in the retail market, and as joint venture and foreign banks continue to advance in the corporate sector.
The bank financial strength rating of Postabank reflects its success at developing a major market position in a short period, as well as its presently low level of problem loans. The rating also incorporates the bank's rapid growth in a transitional economy, its moderate profitability, and its reliance on post office business. Moody's said that the bank's post office business, which has been the source of a large deposit base, could grow increasingly subject to competition as the bank has a non-exclusive agreement with the post
office, and if the popularity of electronic and full-service delivery alternatives should increase over time.
© 2020 Moody's Corporation, Moody's Investors Service, Inc., Moody's Analytics, Inc. and/or their licensors and affiliates (collectively, "MOODY'S"). All rights reserved.
CREDIT RATINGS ISSUED BY MOODY'S INVESTORS SERVICE, INC. AND/OR ITS CREDIT RATINGS AFFILIATES ARE MOODY'S CURRENT OPINIONS OF THE RELATIVE FUTURE CREDIT RISK OF ENTITIES, CREDIT COMMITMENTS, OR DEBT OR DEBT-LIKE SECURITIES, AND MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, SERVICES AND INFORMATION PUBLISHED BY MOODY'S (COLLECTIVELY, "PUBLICATIONS") MAY INCLUDE SUCH CURRENT OPINIONS. MOODY'S INVESTORS SERVICE DEFINES CREDIT RISK AS THE RISK THAT AN ENTITY MAY NOT MEET ITS CONTRACTUAL FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS AS THEY COME DUE AND ANY ESTIMATED FINANCIAL LOSS IN THE EVENT OF DEFAULT OR IMPAIRMENT. SEE MOODY'S RATING SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS PUBLICATION FOR INFORMATION ON THE TYPES OF CONTRACTUAL FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS ADDRESSED BY MOODY'S INVESTORS SERVICE CREDIT RATINGS. CREDIT RATINGS DO NOT ADDRESS ANY OTHER RISK, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO: LIQUIDITY RISK, MARKET VALUE RISK, OR PRICE VOLATILITY. CREDIT RATINGS, NON-CREDIT ASSESSMENTS ("ASSESSMENTS"), AND OTHER OPINIONS INCLUDED IN MOODY'S PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT STATEMENTS OF CURRENT OR HISTORICAL FACT. MOODY'S PUBLICATIONS MAY ALSO INCLUDE QUANTITATIVE MODEL-BASED ESTIMATES OF CREDIT RISK AND RELATED OPINIONS OR COMMENTARY PUBLISHED BY MOODY'S ANALYTICS, INC. AND/OR ITS AFFILIATES. MOODY'S CREDIT RATINGS, ASSESSMENTS, OTHER OPINIONS AND PUBLICATIONS DO NOT CONSTITUTE OR PROVIDE INVESTMENT OR FINANCIAL ADVICE, AND MOODY'S CREDIT RATINGS, ASSESSMENTS, OTHER OPINIONS AND PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AND DO NOT PROVIDE RECOMMENDATIONS TO PURCHASE, SELL, OR HOLD PARTICULAR SECURITIES. MOODY'S CREDIT RATINGS, ASSESSMENTS, OTHER OPINIONS AND PUBLICATIONS DO NOT COMMENT ON THE SUITABILITY OF AN INVESTMENT FOR ANY PARTICULAR INVESTOR. MOODY'S ISSUES ITS CREDIT RATINGS, ASSESSMENTS AND OTHER OPINIONS AND PUBLISHES ITS PUBLICATIONS WITH THE EXPECTATION AND UNDERSTANDING THAT EACH INVESTOR WILL, WITH DUE CARE, MAKE ITS OWN STUDY AND EVALUATION OF EACH SECURITY THAT IS UNDER CONSIDERATION FOR PURCHASE, HOLDING, OR SALE.
MOODY'S CREDIT RATINGS,
ASSESSMENTS, OTHER OPINIONS, AND PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT INTENDED FOR USE BY RETAIL INVESTORS AND IT WOULD BE RECKLESS AND INAPPROPRIATE FOR RETAIL INVESTORS TO USE MOODY'S CREDIT RATINGS, ASSESSMENTS, OTHER OPINIONS OR PUBLICATIONS WHEN MAKING AN INVESTMENT DECISION. IF IN DOUBT YOU SHOULD CONTACT YOUR FINANCIAL OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL ADVISER.
ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS PROTECTED BY LAW, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, COPYRIGHT LAW, AND NONE OF SUCH INFORMATION MAY BE COPIED OR OTHERWISE REPRODUCED, REPACKAGED, FURTHER TRANSMITTED, TRANSFERRED, DISSEMINATED, REDISTRIBUTED OR RESOLD, OR STORED FOR SUBSEQUENT USE FOR ANY SUCH PURPOSE, IN WHOLE OR IN PART, IN ANY FORM OR MANNER OR BY ANY MEANS WHATSOEVER, BY ANY PERSON WITHOUT MOODY'S PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT.
MOODY'S CREDIT RATINGS,
ASSESSMENTS, OTHER OPINIONS AND PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT INTENDED FOR USE BY ANY PERSON AS A BENCHMARK AS THAT TERM IS DEFINED FOR REGULATORY PURPOSES AND MUST NOT BE USED IN ANY WAY THAT COULD RESULT IN THEM BEING CONSIDERED A BENCHMARK.
All information contained herein is obtained by MOODY'S from sources believed by it to be accurate and reliable. Because of the possibility of human or mechanical error as well as other factors, however, all information contained herein is provided "AS IS" without warranty of any kind. MOODY'S adopts all necessary measures so that the information it uses in assigning a credit rating is of sufficient quality and from sources MOODY'S considers to be reliable including, when appropriate, independent third-party sources. However, MOODY'S is not an auditor and cannot in every instance independently verify or validate information received in the rating process or in preparing its Publications.
To the extent permitted by law, MOODY'S and its directors, officers, employees, agents, representatives, licensors and suppliers disclaim liability to any person or entity for any indirect, special, consequential, or incidental losses or damages whatsoever arising from or in connection with the information contained herein or the use of or inability to use any such information, even if MOODY'S or any of its directors, officers, employees, agents, representatives, licensors or suppliers is advised in advance of the possibility of such losses or damages, including but not limited to: (a) any loss of present or prospective profits or (b) any loss or damage arising where the relevant financial instrument is not the subject of a particular credit rating assigned by MOODY'S.
To the extent permitted by law, MOODY'S and its directors, officers, employees, agents, representatives, licensors and suppliers disclaim liability for any direct or compensatory losses or damages caused to any person or entity, including but not limited to by any negligence (but excluding fraud, willful misconduct or any other type of liability that, for the avoidance of doubt, by law cannot be excluded) on the part of, or any contingency within or beyond the control of, MOODY'S or any of its directors, officers, employees, agents, representatives, licensors or suppliers, arising from or in connection with the information contained herein or the use of or inability to use any such information.
NO WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO THE ACCURACY, TIMELINESS, COMPLETENESS, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OF ANY CREDIT RATING, ASSESSMENT, OTHER OPINION OR INFORMATION IS GIVEN OR MADE BY MOODY'S IN ANY FORM OR MANNER WHATSOEVER.
Moody's Investors Service, Inc., a wholly-owned credit rating agency subsidiary of Moody's Corporation ("MCO"), hereby discloses that most issuers of debt securities (including corporate and municipal bonds, debentures, notes and commercial paper) and preferred stock rated by Moody's Investors Service, Inc. have, prior to assignment of any credit rating, agreed to pay to Moody's Investors Service, Inc. for credit ratings opinions and services rendered by it fees ranging from $1,000 to approximately $2,700,000. MCO and Moody's investors Service also maintain policies and procedures to address the independence of Moody's Investors Service credit ratings and credit rating processes. Information regarding certain affiliations that may exist between directors of MCO and rated entities, and between entities who hold credit ratings from Moody's Investors Service and have also publicly reported to the SEC an ownership interest in MCO of more than 5%, is posted annually at www.moodys.com
under the heading "Investor Relations — Corporate Governance — Director and Shareholder Affiliation Policy."
Additional terms for Australia only: Any publication into Australia of this document is pursuant to the Australian Financial Services License of MOODY'S affiliate, Moody's Investors Service Pty Limited ABN 61 003 399 657AFSL 336969 and/or Moody's Analytics Australia Pty Ltd ABN 94 105 136 972 AFSL 383569 (as applicable). This document is intended to be provided only to "wholesale clients" within the meaning of section 761G of the Corporations Act 2001. By continuing to access this document from within Australia, you represent to MOODY'S that you are, or are accessing the document as a representative of, a "wholesale client" and that neither you nor the entity you represent will directly or indirectly disseminate this document or its contents to "retail clients" within the meaning of section 761G of the Corporations Act 2001. MOODY'S credit rating is an opinion as to the creditworthiness of a debt obligation of the issuer, not on the equity securities of the issuer or any form of security that is available to retail investors.
Additional terms for Japan only: Moody's Japan K.K. ("MJKK") is a wholly-owned credit rating agency subsidiary of Moody's Group Japan G.K., which is wholly-owned by Moody's Overseas Holdings Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of MCO. Moody's SF Japan K.K. ("MSFJ") is a wholly-owned credit rating agency subsidiary of MJKK. MSFJ is not a Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organization ("NRSRO"). Therefore, credit ratings assigned by MSFJ are Non-NRSRO Credit Ratings. Non-NRSRO Credit Ratings are assigned by an entity that is not a NRSRO and, consequently, the rated obligation will not qualify for certain types of treatment under U.S. laws. MJKK and MSFJ are credit rating agencies registered with the Japan Financial Services Agency and their registration numbers are FSA Commissioner (Ratings) No. 2 and 3 respectively.
MJKK or MSFJ (as applicable) hereby disclose that most issuers of debt securities (including corporate and municipal bonds, debentures, notes and commercial paper) and preferred stock rated by MJKK or MSFJ (as applicable) have, prior to assignment of any credit rating, agreed to pay to MJKK or MSFJ (as applicable) for credit ratings opinions and services rendered by it fees ranging from JPY125,000 to approximately JPY250,000,000.
MJKK and MSFJ also maintain policies and procedures to address Japanese regulatory requirements.