Please Note
We brought you to this page based on your search query. If this isn't what you are looking for, you can continue to Search Results for ""
The maximum number of items you can export is 3,000. Please reduce your list by using the filtering tool to the left.
Close
Você está prestes a deixar o site local do Brasil e será direcionado ao site global. Deseja continuar?
Não exibir esta mensagem novamente
Sim
Não
Close
Email Research
Recipient email addresses will not be used in mailing lists or redistributed.
Recipient's
Email

Use semicolon to separate each address, limit to 20 addresses.
Enter the
characters you see
Close
Email Research
Thank you for your interest in sharing Moody's Research. You have reached the daily limit of Research email sharings.
Close
Thank you!
You have successfully sent the research.
Please note: some research requires a paid subscription in order to access.
Already a customer?
LOG IN
Don't want to see this again?
REGISTER
OR
Accept our Terms of Use to continue to Moodys.com:

PLEASE READ AND SCROLL DOWN!

 

By clicking “I AGREE”, you indicate that you understand and intend these terms and conditions to be the legal equivalent of a signed, written contract and equally binding, and that you accept such terms and conditions as a condition of viewing any and all Moody’s information that becomes accessible to you (the “Information”). References herein to “Moody’s” include Moody’s Corporation. and each of its subsidiaries and affiliates..

 

Terms of One-Time Website Use

 

1.             Unless you have entered into an express written contract with www.moodys.com to the contrary and/or agreed to the Terms of Use at www.moodys.com or ratings.moodys.com, you agree that you have no right to use the Information in a commercial or public setting and no right to copy it, save it, print it, sell it, or publish or distribute any portion of it in any form.                   

 

2.             CREDIT RATINGS AND MOODY’S MATERIALS FOUND ON WWW.MOODYS.COM OR SITES OTHER THAN RATINGS.MOODYS.COM MAY NOT BE DISPLAYED IN REAL TIME. FOR REAL-TIME DISPLAYS OF CREDIT RATINGS AND OTHER INFORMATION REQUIRED TO BE DISCLOSED BY MIS PURSUANT TO APPLICABLE LAW OR REGULATION, PLEASE USE RATINGS.MOODYS.COM.           

 

3.             You acknowledge and agree that Moody’s credit ratings: (i) are current opinions of the future relative creditworthiness of securities and address no other risk; and (ii) are not statements of current or historical fact or recommendations to purchase, hold or sell particular securities. Moody’s credit ratings and publications are not intended for retail investors, and it would be reckless and inappropriate for retail investors to use Moody’s credit ratings and publications when making an investment decision. No warranty, express or implied, as the accuracy, timeliness, completeness, merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose of any Moody’s credit rating is given or made by Moody’s in any form whatsoever.

 

4.             To the extent permitted by law, Moody’s and its directors, officers, employees, representatives, licensors and suppliers disclaim liability for: (i) any indirect, special, consequential, or incidental losses or damages whatsoever arising from or in connection with use of the Information; and (ii) any direct or compensatory damages caused to any person or entity, including but not limited to by any negligence (but excluding fraud or any other type of liability that by law cannot be excluded) on the part of Moody’s or any of its directors, officers, employees, agents, representatives, licensors or suppliers, arising from or in connection with use of the Information.     

 

5.             You agree to read and be bound by the more detailed disclosures regarding Moody’s ratings and the limitations of Moody’s liability included in the Information.​​​

 

6.             You agree that any disputes relating to this agreement or your use of the Information, whether in contract, tort, statute or otherwise, shall be governed by the laws of the State of New York and shall be subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of the State of New York located in the City and County of New York, Borough of Manhattan.​​​

I AGREE
Rating Action:

Moody's confirms Tajikistan's B3 ratings, changes outlook to negative

17 Oct 2022

Singapore, October 17, 2022 -- Moody's Investors Service ("Moody's") has today confirmed the Government of Tajikistan's B3 long-term issuer and senior unsecured ratings and changed the outlook to negative. Prior to this action, the B3 ratings were on review for downgrade.

This action concludes the review initiated on 30 March 2022, which had cited the likelihood that a sharp and prolonged economic downturn in Russia would lead to a sustained deterioration in Tajikistan's growth potential, primarily through a material fall in remittances that would also pressure external balances and financial stability.

In the period since the initiation of the review, the Tajik economy has demonstrated a degree of resilience to the fallout from Russia's invasion of Ukraine. Real economic activity has continued to expand, the relative stability of the external payments position has bolstered foreign reserve buffers and the pipeline for external concessional financing has remained intact. At the same time, the downside risks posed by the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine have not eased, underpinning the negative outlook.

Tajikistan's local and foreign currency ceilings remain unchanged at B2 and B3, respectively. The one-notch gap between the local currency ceiling and the sovereign rating is driven by the government's relatively large footprint in the economy, weak institutions balanced against domestic political stability, and relatively high susceptibility to external vulnerability risk. The one-notch gap between the foreign currency ceiling and the local currency ceiling reflects incomplete capital account convertibility and moderate external debt.

RATINGS RATIONALE

RATIONALE FOR THE CONFIRMATION OF THE B3 RATING

In the period since the initiation of the review, the Tajik economy has demonstrated a degree of resilience to the fallout from Russia's invasion of Ukraine. Real economic activity has continued to expand, the relative stability of the external payments position has bolstered foreign reserve buffers and the pipeline for external concessional financing has remained intact.

Despite the strong historical correlation between economic growth in Russia and Tajikistan, and incorporating other considerations such as ruble depreciation, the heavy concentration of Tajikistan's remittances from Russia, and the large proportion of remittances as a share of Tajikistan's GDP, Tajikistan's economy has been more resilient over the past six months than Moody's had previously expected. In contrast to Moody's projection of a 3.5% contraction for the full year in 2022, the government has reported that real GDP over the first nine months of the year actually expanded by 7.8% year-on-year. The stability of the ruble against the US dollar has preserved the purchasing power of remittances, which in turn has been cushioned by a surge in the deployment of Tajik migrant workers to Russia, as per data published by the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs. In addition, favorable weather conditions have supported agricultural production, while import substitution has reinforced industrial production.

Cross-border financial transactions have not seen significant disruptions as Tajik financial institutions have not been subject to international sanctions and new correspondent banking relationships have been established with banks outside of Russia. Tajikistan remains current on debt servicing of payment obligations to its official creditors and for its outstanding sovereign bond.

Moreover, remittances and trade have remained largely unfettered notwithstanding the deterioration in global credit conditions, contributing to the stabilization of the exchange rate and the overall balance of payments despite a widening in the trade deficit partly owing to higher global prices for imported commodities. Consequently, as reported in the IMF's International Financial Statistics, foreign exchange reserves excluding gold have climbed to a record high of $3.1 billion as of August 2022 from $2.3 billion at the end of 2021. These reserves remain sufficient to meet external debt servicing requirements over at least the next year.

RATIONALE FOR THE NEGATIVE OUTLOOK

The ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, if prolonged or intensified, continues to pose downside risks to the Tajikistan's credit profile given still significant linkages with Russia. In particular, risks around the geo-political situation, associated downside risks for the Russian economy and migrant worker employment remain. The negative outlook provides a longer time frame to assess the durability of its near-term resilience and to account for still heightened geopolitical uncertainties.

ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL AND GOVERNANCE CONSIDERATIONS

Tajikistan's ESG Credit Impact Score is highly negative (CIS-4), reflecting its weak governance profile, moderately negative exposure to environmental risks and highly negative exposure to social risks. The country's low incomes and weak institutions constrain its ability to respond to ESG shocks.

Tajikistan's moderately negative exposure to environmental risks (E-3 issuer profile score) is driven by its vulnerability to the depletion of water resources over the long run – especially in the context of the importance of hydropower generation to its economy; at the same time, carbon transition is not a risk given rising hydropower output. Moderately negative environmental risks include physical climate risks – mainly from periodic instances of drought – and the degradation of the country's natural capital, including soil erosion afflicting the country's relatively small endowment of arable land.

Exposure to social risks is highly negative (S-4 issuer profile score). While the country's Soviet legacy left most of the population with access to social infrastructure such as education, housing, healthcare and other basic provisions, the quality of service delivery is generally very low and has limited the development of human capital. This is reflected in the country's weak social metrics, such as its relatively low life expectancy and access to clean drinking water. Tajikistan's demographic profile is benign, allowing for the export of labour and the inflow of remittances – a key source of foreign exchange earnings; however, this also reflects the relative dearth of domestic economic opportunities.

The influence of governance on Tajikistan's credit profile is highly negative (G-4 issuer profile score), reflecting weak policy effectiveness and control of corruption, consistent with cross-country surveys such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. Governance considerations weigh heavily on the country's business environment, serving as a key impediment to foreign direct investment and, ultimately, on economic development.

GDP per capita (PPP basis, US$): 4,329 (2021) (also known as Per Capita Income)

Real GDP growth (% change): 9.2% (2021) (also known as GDP Growth)

Inflation Rate (CPI, % change Dec/Dec): 8% (2021)

Gen. Gov. Financial Balance/GDP: -4.7% (2021) (also known as Fiscal Balance)

Current Account Balance/GDP: 8.4% (2021) (also known as External Balance)

External debt/GDP: 85.0% (2020) (includes Public and Private Sector debt)

Economic resiliency: b2

Default history: At least one default event (on bonds and/or loans) has been recorded since 1983.

On 12 October 2022, a rating committee was called to discuss the rating of the Tajikistan, Government of. The main points raised during the discussion were: The issuer's economic fundamentals, including its economic strength, have not materially changed. The issuer's institutions and governance strength, have not materially changed. The issuer's fiscal or financial strength, including its debt profile, has materially increased. The issuer's susceptibility to event risks has not materially changed.

FACTORS THAT COULD LEAD TO AN UPGRADE OR DOWNGRADE OF THE RATINGS

FACTORS THAT COULD LEAD TO AN UPGRADE OF THE RATINGS

Given the negative outlook, which largely reflects potential downside risks from external factors, an upgrade of Tajikistan's ratings is remote. The outlook could be revised to stable if Moody's were to conclude that the near-term resilience of its economic, fiscal and external metrics are sufficiently durable to withstand the downside risks posed by the challenging geopolitical backdrop.

FACTORS THAT COULD LEAD TO A DOWNGRADE OF THE RATINGS

Tajikistan's rating would likely be downgraded if Moody's concluded that the negative impact of the Russia-Ukraine military conflict would undermine the economy's near-term resilience, leading to a lasting deterioration in fiscal metrics and the external payments position. The emergence of constraints to the government's access to external concessional financing would also lead to a downgrade, which could result from a deviation from the commitment to policy reform and medium-term fiscal consolidation that demonstrates weaknesses in institutions and governance strength.

The principal methodology used in these ratings was Sovereign Ratings Methodology published in November 2019 and available at https://ratings.moodys.com/api/rmc-documents/63168. Alternatively, please see the Rating Methodologies page on https://ratings.moodys.com for a copy of this methodology.

The weighting of all rating factors is described in the methodology used in this credit rating action, if applicable.

REGULATORY DISCLOSURES

For further specification of Moody's key rating assumptions and sensitivity analysis, see the sections Methodology Assumptions and Sensitivity to Assumptions in the disclosure form. Moody's Rating Symbols and Definitions can be found on https://ratings.moodys.com/rating-definitions.

For ratings issued on a program, series, category/class of debt or security this announcement provides certain regulatory disclosures in relation to each rating of a subsequently issued bond or note of the same series, category/class of debt, security or pursuant to a program for which the ratings are derived exclusively from existing ratings in accordance with Moody's rating practices. For ratings issued on a support provider, this announcement provides certain regulatory disclosures in relation to the credit rating action on the support provider and in relation to each particular credit rating action for securities that derive their credit ratings from the support provider's credit rating. For provisional ratings, this announcement provides certain regulatory disclosures in relation to the provisional rating assigned, and in relation to a definitive rating that may be assigned subsequent to the final issuance of the debt, in each case where the transaction structure and terms have not changed prior to the assignment of the definitive rating in a manner that would have affected the rating. For further information please see the issuer/deal page for the respective issuer on https://ratings.moodys.com.

For any affected securities or rated entities receiving direct credit support from the primary entity(ies) of this credit rating action, and whose ratings may change as a result of this credit rating action, the associated regulatory disclosures will be those of the guarantor entity. Exceptions to this approach exist for the following disclosures, if applicable to jurisdiction: Ancillary Services, Disclosure to rated entity, Disclosure from rated entity.

The ratings have been disclosed to the rated entity or its designated agent(s) and issued with no amendment resulting from that disclosure.

These ratings are solicited. Please refer to Moody's Policy for Designating and Assigning Unsolicited Credit Ratings available on its website https://ratings.moodys.com.

Regulatory disclosures contained in this press release apply to the credit rating and, if applicable, the related rating outlook or rating review.

Moody's general principles for assessing environmental, social and governance (ESG) risks in our credit analysis can be found at https://ratings.moodys.com/documents/PBC_1288235.

The Global Scale Credit Rating on this Credit Rating Announcement was issued by one of Moody's affiliates outside the EU and is endorsed by Moody's Deutschland GmbH, An der Welle 5, Frankfurt am Main 60322, Germany, in accordance with Art.4 paragraph 3 of the Regulation (EC) No 1060/2009 on Credit Rating Agencies. Further information on the EU endorsement status and on the Moody's office that issued the credit rating is available on https://ratings.moodys.com.

The Global Scale Credit Rating on this Credit Rating Announcement was issued by one of Moody's affiliates outside the UK and is endorsed by Moody's Investors Service Limited, One Canada Square, Canary Wharf, London E14 5FA under the law applicable to credit rating agencies in the UK. Further information on the UK endorsement status and on the Moody's office that issued the credit rating is available on https://ratings.moodys.com.

Please see https://ratings.moodys.com for any updates on changes to the lead rating analyst and to the Moody's legal entity that has issued the rating.

Please see the issuer/deal page on https://ratings.moodys.com for additional regulatory disclosures for each credit rating.

Christian de Guzman
Senior Vice President/Manager
Sovereign Risk Group
Moody's Investors Service Singapore Pte. Ltd.
71 Robinson Road #05-01/02
Singapore, 068895
Singapore
JOURNALISTS: 852 3758 1350
Client Service: 852 3551 3077

Marie Diron
MD - Sovereign Risk
Sovereign Risk Group
JOURNALISTS: 44 20 7772 5456
Client Service: 44 20 7772 5454

Releasing Office:
Moody's Investors Service Singapore Pte. Ltd.
71 Robinson Road #05-01/02
Singapore, 068895
Singapore
JOURNALISTS: 852 3758 1350
Client Service: 852 3551 3077

No Related Data.
© 2023 Moody’s Corporation, Moody’s Investors Service, Inc., Moody’s Analytics, Inc. and/or their licensors and affiliates (collectively, “MOODY’S”). All rights reserved.

CREDIT RATINGS ISSUED BY MOODY'S CREDIT RATINGS AFFILIATES ARE THEIR CURRENT OPINIONS OF THE RELATIVE FUTURE CREDIT RISK OF ENTITIES, CREDIT COMMITMENTS, OR DEBT OR DEBT-LIKE SECURITIES, AND MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, SERVICES AND INFORMATION PUBLISHED BY MOODY’S (COLLECTIVELY, “PUBLICATIONS”) MAY INCLUDE SUCH CURRENT OPINIONS. MOODY’S DEFINES CREDIT RISK AS THE RISK THAT AN ENTITY MAY NOT MEET ITS CONTRACTUAL FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS AS THEY COME DUE AND ANY ESTIMATED FINANCIAL LOSS IN THE EVENT OF DEFAULT OR IMPAIRMENT. SEE APPLICABLE MOODY’S RATING SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS PUBLICATION FOR INFORMATION ON THE TYPES OF CONTRACTUAL FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS ADDRESSED BY MOODY’S CREDIT RATINGS. CREDIT RATINGS DO NOT ADDRESS ANY OTHER RISK, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO: LIQUIDITY RISK, MARKET VALUE RISK, OR PRICE VOLATILITY. CREDIT RATINGS, NON-CREDIT ASSESSMENTS (“ASSESSMENTS”), AND OTHER OPINIONS INCLUDED IN MOODY’S PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT STATEMENTS OF CURRENT OR HISTORICAL FACT. MOODY’S PUBLICATIONS MAY ALSO INCLUDE QUANTITATIVE MODEL-BASED ESTIMATES OF CREDIT RISK AND RELATED OPINIONS OR COMMENTARY PUBLISHED BY MOODY’S ANALYTICS, INC. AND/OR ITS AFFILIATES. MOODY’S CREDIT RATINGS, ASSESSMENTS, OTHER OPINIONS AND PUBLICATIONS DO NOT CONSTITUTE OR PROVIDE INVESTMENT OR FINANCIAL ADVICE, AND MOODY’S CREDIT RATINGS, ASSESSMENTS, OTHER OPINIONS AND PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AND DO NOT PROVIDE RECOMMENDATIONS TO PURCHASE, SELL, OR HOLD PARTICULAR SECURITIES. MOODY’S CREDIT RATINGS, ASSESSMENTS, OTHER OPINIONS AND PUBLICATIONS DO NOT COMMENT ON THE SUITABILITY OF AN INVESTMENT FOR ANY PARTICULAR INVESTOR. MOODY’S ISSUES ITS CREDIT RATINGS, ASSESSMENTS AND OTHER OPINIONS AND PUBLISHES ITS PUBLICATIONS WITH THE EXPECTATION AND UNDERSTANDING THAT EACH INVESTOR WILL, WITH DUE CARE, MAKE ITS OWN STUDY AND EVALUATION OF EACH SECURITY THAT IS UNDER CONSIDERATION FOR PURCHASE, HOLDING, OR SALE.

MOODY’S CREDIT RATINGS, ASSESSMENTS, OTHER OPINIONS, AND PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT INTENDED FOR USE BY RETAIL INVESTORS AND IT WOULD BE RECKLESS AND INAPPROPRIATE FOR RETAIL INVESTORS TO USE MOODY’S CREDIT RATINGS, ASSESSMENTS, OTHER OPINIONS OR PUBLICATIONS WHEN MAKING AN INVESTMENT DECISION. IF IN DOUBT YOU SHOULD CONTACT YOUR FINANCIAL OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL ADVISER.

ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN IS PROTECTED BY LAW, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, COPYRIGHT LAW, AND NONE OF SUCH INFORMATION MAY BE COPIED OR OTHERWISE REPRODUCED, REPACKAGED, FURTHER TRANSMITTED, TRANSFERRED, DISSEMINATED, REDISTRIBUTED OR RESOLD, OR STORED FOR SUBSEQUENT USE FOR ANY SUCH PURPOSE, IN WHOLE OR IN PART, IN ANY FORM OR MANNER OR BY ANY MEANS WHATSOEVER, BY ANY PERSON WITHOUT MOODY’S PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT.

MOODY’S CREDIT RATINGS, ASSESSMENTS, OTHER OPINIONS AND PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT INTENDED FOR USE BY ANY PERSON AS A BENCHMARK AS THAT TERM IS DEFINED FOR REGULATORY PURPOSES AND MUST NOT BE USED IN ANY WAY THAT COULD RESULT IN THEM BEING CONSIDERED A BENCHMARK.

All information contained herein is obtained by MOODY’S from sources believed by it to be accurate and reliable. Because of the possibility of human or mechanical error as well as other factors, however, all information contained herein is provided “AS IS” without warranty of any kind. MOODY'S adopts all necessary measures so that the information it uses in assigning a credit rating is of sufficient quality and from sources MOODY'S considers to be reliable including, when appropriate, independent third-party sources. However, MOODY’S is not an auditor and cannot in every instance independently verify or validate information received in the credit rating process or in preparing its Publications.

To the extent permitted by law, MOODY’S and its directors, officers, employees, agents, representatives, licensors and suppliers disclaim liability to any person or entity for any indirect, special, consequential, or incidental losses or damages whatsoever arising from or in connection with the information contained herein or the use of or inability to use any such information, even if MOODY’S or any of its directors, officers, employees, agents, representatives, licensors or suppliers is advised in advance of the possibility of such losses or damages, including but not limited to: (a) any loss of present or prospective profits or (b) any loss or damage arising where the relevant financial instrument is not the subject of a particular credit rating assigned by MOODY’S.

To the extent permitted by law, MOODY’S and its directors, officers, employees, agents, representatives, licensors and suppliers disclaim liability for any direct or compensatory losses or damages caused to any person or entity, including but not limited to by any negligence (but excluding fraud, willful misconduct or any other type of liability that, for the avoidance of doubt, by law cannot be excluded) on the part of, or any contingency within or beyond the control of, MOODY’S or any of its directors, officers, employees, agents, representatives, licensors or suppliers, arising from or in connection with the information contained herein or the use of or inability to use any such information.

NO WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO THE ACCURACY, TIMELINESS, COMPLETENESS, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OF ANY CREDIT RATING, ASSESSMENT, OTHER OPINION OR INFORMATION IS GIVEN OR MADE BY MOODY’S IN ANY FORM OR MANNER WHATSOEVER.

Moody’s Investors Service, Inc., a wholly-owned credit rating agency subsidiary of Moody’s Corporation (“MCO”), hereby discloses that most issuers of debt securities (including corporate and municipal bonds, debentures, notes and commercial paper) and preferred stock rated by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. have, prior to assignment of any credit rating, agreed to pay to Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. for credit ratings opinions and services rendered by it fees ranging from $1,000 to approximately $5,000,000. MCO and Moody’s Investors Service also maintain policies and procedures to address the independence of Moody’s Investors Service credit ratings and credit rating processes. Information regarding certain affiliations that may exist between directors of MCO and rated entities, and between entities who hold credit ratings from Moody’s Investors Service, Inc. and have also publicly reported to the SEC an ownership interest in MCO of more than 5%, is posted annually at www.moodys.com under the heading “Investor Relations — Corporate Governance — Charter Documents - Director and Shareholder Affiliation Policy.”

Additional terms for Australia only: Any publication into Australia of this document is pursuant to the Australian Financial Services License of MOODY’S affiliate, Moody’s Investors Service Pty Limited ABN 61 003 399 657AFSL 336969 and/or Moody’s Analytics Australia Pty Ltd ABN 94 105 136 972 AFSL 383569 (as applicable). This document is intended to be provided only to “wholesale clients” within the meaning of section 761G of the Corporations Act 2001. By continuing to access this document from within Australia, you represent to MOODY’S that you are, or are accessing the document as a representative of, a “wholesale client” and that neither you nor the entity you represent will directly or indirectly disseminate this document or its contents to “retail clients” within the meaning of section 761G of the Corporations Act 2001. MOODY’S credit rating is an opinion as to the creditworthiness of a debt obligation of the issuer, not on the equity securities of the issuer or any form of security that is available to retail investors.

Additional terms for Japan only: Moody's Japan K.K. (“MJKK”) is a wholly-owned credit rating agency subsidiary of Moody's Group Japan G.K., which is wholly-owned by Moody’s Overseas Holdings Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of MCO. Moody’s SF Japan K.K. (“MSFJ”) is a wholly-owned credit rating agency subsidiary of MJKK. MSFJ is not a Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organization (“NRSRO”). Therefore, credit ratings assigned by MSFJ are Non-NRSRO Credit Ratings. Non-NRSRO Credit Ratings are assigned by an entity that is not a NRSRO and, consequently, the rated obligation will not qualify for certain types of treatment under U.S. laws. MJKK and MSFJ are credit rating agencies registered with the Japan Financial Services Agency and their registration numbers are FSA Commissioner (Ratings) No. 2 and 3 respectively.

MJKK or MSFJ (as applicable) hereby disclose that most issuers of debt securities (including corporate and municipal bonds, debentures, notes and commercial paper) and preferred stock rated by MJKK or MSFJ (as applicable) have, prior to assignment of any credit rating, agreed to pay to MJKK or MSFJ (as applicable) for credit ratings opinions and services rendered by it fees ranging from JPY100,000 to approximately JPY550,000,000.

MJKK and MSFJ also maintain policies and procedures to address Japanese regulatory requirements.